In addition to the above-mentioned conditions for the import and export of waste, there are strict requirements for the notification, authorisation and monitoring of transboundary shipments of waste. It should be noted that the Convention provides for a general ban on the export or import of waste between Contracting Parties and non-Parties. The exception to this rule is when the waste is subject to another contract that does not comply with the Basel Convention. The United States is a notable non-party to the convention and has a number of such agreements to authorize the shipment of hazardous wastes to the countries of the Basel Party. The Basel Convention establishes standards for transboundary movements of hazardous wastes, solid wastes and urban incinerable ash, including notification and written confirmation from the country of destination prior to export. As of December 2015, 183 states and the European Union are parties to the convention. The United States is a signatory to the Basel Convention, but is not yet a party to the Convention. After the first adoption of the convention, some least developed countries and environmental organizations argued that it does not go far enough. Many nations and NGOs have called for a total ban on the shipment of all hazardous wastes to the least developed countries.
In particular, the original convention did not prohibit the export of waste to any place except Antarctica, but simply required a system of notification and consent known as “prior informed consent” or PIC. In addition, many waste distributors have tried to exploit the good reputation of recycling and have begun to justify all exports as offshoring towards recycling targets. Many thought a total ban was needed, including exports for recycling. These concerns have led to several regional bans on waste trade, including the Bamako Convention. The United States participates in a legally binding agreement with OECD members that governs transboundary shipments of waste for recovery. The OECD Council Decision on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Wastes for Recovery is a multilateral agreement that establishes procedural and physical controls for the import and export of hazardous wastes for recovery between OECD Member States. Recovery operations relate to activities that lead to recovery, recycling, recovery, direct reuse or other uses (see Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations or CFR in paragraph 262.81). The agreement aims to facilitate trade in such waste and minimise the possibility of such waste being abandoned or treated illegally. The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal first entered into force in 1992.
The agreement obliges exporting countries to ensure that hazardous waste is managed in an environmentally sound manner in the country of import. The Canada-U.S. agreement was concluded in 1986 and amended in 1992. It deals with transboundary shipments of hazardous waste and other waste between the two countries for recycling or disposal. The bilateral agreement aims, among other things, to provide both countries with safe and inexpensive waste management options, for which there are no national capacities or adequate waste management technologies. .
（转载本站文章请注明作者和出处 酷 壳 – CoolShell ，请勿用于任何商业用途）